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For the anime casual clothes male 2018 index multiplied by the probability that a random individual will attain the average HDI, see.

World map indicating the Human Development Index (based on 2015 and 2016 data, published on 21 March 2017).

  0.900–0.949

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World map of the Human Development Index by country, grouped by (based on 2015 and 2016 data, published on 21 March 2017).

  Highest 25%

  Above median

  Below median

  Lowest 25%

  Data unavailable

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic (composite index) of,, and indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of. A country scores higher HDI when the is higher, the level is higher, and the is higher. The HDI was developed by Pakistani economist and Indian economist which was further used to measure the country's development by the United Nations Development Program ().

The 2010 introduced an (IHDI). While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for )", and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)".

The index is based on the human development approach, developed by Ul Haq, often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, sheltered, healthy; Doings: work, education, voting, participating in community life. It must also be noted that the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry (as during a religious fast) is quite different to someone who is hungry because they cannot afford to buy food.

Contents

Origins[]

The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Reports Office of the (UNDP). These were devised and launched by Pakistani economist in 1990, and had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including,,,, Sudhir Anand, and. Nobel laureate utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities. Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public, academics, and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human.

The underlying principle behind the Human Development Index.

Dimensions and calculation[]

New method (2010 Index onwards)[]

Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), the 2010 Human Development Index (HDI) combines three dimensions:

  • A long and healthy life:
  • : Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling
  • A decent standard of living: per capita ( US$)

In its, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used:

1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI) = LE − 20 85 − 20 {\displaystyle ={\frac {{\textrm {LE}}-20}{85-20}}} ={\frac {{\textrm {LE}}-20}{85-20}}

LEI is 1 when is 85 and 0 when is 20.

2. (EI) = MYSI + EYSI 2 {\displaystyle ={\frac {{\textrm {MYSI}}+{\textrm {EYSI}}}{2}}} ={\frac {{\textrm {MYSI}}+{\textrm {EYSI}}}{2}}

2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI) = MYS 15 {\displaystyle ={\frac {\textrm {MYS}}{15}}} ={\frac {\textrm {MYS}}{15}} Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI) = EYS 18 {\displaystyle ={\frac {\textrm {EYS}}{18}}} ={\frac {\textrm {EYS}}{18}} Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.

3. Income Index (II) = ln ⁡ ( GNIpc ) − ln ⁡ ( 100 ) ln ⁡ ( 75, 000 ) − ln ⁡ ( 100 ) {\displaystyle ={\frac {\ln({\textrm {GNIpc}})-\ln(100)}{\ln(75,000)-\ln(100)}}} ={\frac {\ln({\textrm {GNIpc}})-\ln(100)}{\ln(75,000)-\ln(100)}}

II is 1 when GNI per capita is,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is 0.

Finally, the HDI is the of the previous three normalized indices:

HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II 3. {\displaystyle {\textrm {HDI}}={\sqrt[{3}]{{\textrm {LEI}}\cdot {\textrm {EI}}\cdot {\textrm {II}}}}.} {\textrm {HDI}}={\sqrt[{3}]{{\textrm {LEI}}\cdot {\textrm {EI}}\cdot {\textrm {II}}}}.

LE:
MYS: Mean years of schooling (i.e. years that a person aged 25 or older has spent in formal education)
EYS: Expected years of schooling (i.e. total expected years of schooling for children under 18 years of age)
GNIpc:

Old method (before 2010 Index)[]

The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report:

HDI trends between 1975 and 2004

This methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report.

The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme (). In general, to transform a raw, say x {\displaystyle x} x, into a unit-free between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following is used:

  • x  index = x − a b − a {\displaystyle x{\text{ index}}={\frac {x-a}{b-a}}} {\displaystyle x{\text{ index}}={\frac {x-a}{b-a}}}

where a {\displaystyle a} a and b {\displaystyle b} b are the the variable x {\displaystyle x} x can attain, respectively.

The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the uniformly weighted sum with ​1⁄3 contributed by each of the following factor indices:

  • = L E − 25 85 − 25 {\displaystyle {\frac {LE-25}{85-25}}} {\frac <em>anime</em> {LE-25}{85-25}}
  • = 2 3 × A L I + 1 3 × G E I {\displaystyle {\frac {2}{3}}\times ALI+{\frac {1}{3}}\times GEI} {\frac {2}{3}}\times ALI+{\frac {1}{3}}\times GEI
    • (ALI) = A L R − 0 100 − 0 {\displaystyle {\frac {ALR-0}{100-0}}} {\frac {ALR-0}{100-0}}
    • (GEI) = C G E R − 0 100 − 0 {\displaystyle {\frac {CGER-0}{100-0}}} {\frac {CGER-0}{100-0}}
  • = log ⁡ ( G D P p c ) − log ⁡ ( 100 ) log ⁡ ( 40000 ) − log ⁡ ( 100 ) {\displaystyle {\frac {\log \left(GDPpc\right)-\log \left(100\right)}{\log \left(40000\right)-\log \left(100\right)}}} {\frac {\log \left(GDPpc\right)-\log \left(100\right)}{\log \left(40000\right)-\log \left(100\right)}}

Other organizations/companies may include other factors, such as infant mortality, which produces a different HDI.

2018 Human Development Index[]

It will rank 189 countries, and will be launched on 14 September 2018.

2016 Human Development Index[]

Main article:

The 2016 Human Development Report by the was released on 21 March 2017, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2015. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:

  • Increase = increase.
  • Steady = steady.
  • Decrease = decrease.
  • The number in parentheses represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2015 report.

Inequality-adjusted HDI[]

Main article:

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 206).

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI:,,,,,,,,,,, and.

2015 Human Development Index[]

Main article:

The 2015 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 14 December 2015, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2014. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:

  • Increase = increase.
  • Steady = steady.
  • Decrease = decrease.
  • The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2014 report.

Inequality-adjusted HDI[]

Main article:

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

Note: The green arrows (Increase), red arrows (Decrease), and blue dashes (Steady) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 216).

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI:,,,,,,,,,,,, and.

2014 Human Development Index[]

The 2014 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 24 July 2014 and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2013. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries or regions:

  • Increase = increase.
  • Steady = steady.
  • Decrease = decrease.
  • The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country or region has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2013 report.

Countries not included[]

Some countries were not included for various reasons, primarily due to the lack of necessary data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2014 report:,,,,,,,, and.

Inequality-adjusted HDI[]

Main article:

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".

Note: The green arrows (Increase), red arrows (Decrease), and blue dashes (Steady) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 168).

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI:,,,,,,,,,,,, and.

Past top countries[]

The list below displays the top-ranked country from each year of the Human Development Index. has been ranked the highest thirteen times, eight times, and three times. has been ranked highest twice.

In each original HDI[]

The year represents when the report was published. In parentheses is the year for which the index was calculated.

Geographical coverage[]

The HDI has extended its geographical coverage: David Hastings, of the, published a report geographically extending the HDI to 230+ economies, whereas the UNDP HDI for 2009 enumerates 182 economies and coverage for the 2010 HDI dropped to 169 countries.

Country/region specific HDI lists[]

Criticism[]

The Human Development Index has been criticized on a number of grounds, including alleged lack of consideration of technological development or contributions to the human civilization, focusing exclusively on national performance and ranking, lack of attention to development from a global perspective, measurement error of the underlying statistics, and on the UNDP's changes in formula which can lead to severe misclassification in the categorisation of 'low', 'medium', 'high' or 'very high' human development countries.

Sources of data error[]

Economists Hendrik Wolff, Howard Chong and discuss the HDI from the perspective of data error in the underlying health, education and income statistics used to construct the HDI. They identified three sources of data error which are due to (i) data updating, (ii) formula revisions and (iii) thresholds to classify a country's development status and conclude that 11%, 21% and 34% of all countries can be interpreted as currently misclassified in the development bins due to the three sources of data error, respectively. The authors suggest that the United Nations should discontinue the practice of classifying countries into development bins because: the cut-off values seem arbitrary, can provide incentives for strategic behavior in reporting official statistics, and have the potential to misguide politicians, investors, charity donors and the public who use the HDI at large.

In 2010, the UNDP reacted to the criticism and updated the thresholds to classify nations as low, medium, and high human development countries. In a comment to in early January 2011, the Human Development Report Office responded to a 6 January 2011 article in the magazine which discusses the Wolff et al. paper. The Human Development Report Office states that they undertook a systematic revision of the methods used for the calculation of the HDI, and that the new methodology directly addresses the critique by Wolff et al. in that it generates a system for continuously updating the human-development categories whenever formula or data revisions take place.

In 2013, Salvatore Monni and Alessandro Spaventa emphasized that in the debate of GDP versus HDI, it is often forgotten that these are both external indicators that prioritize different benchmarks upon which the quantification of societal welfare can be predicated. The larger question is whether it is possible to shift the focus of policy from a battle between competing paradigms to a mechanism for eliciting information on well-being directly from the population.

See also[]

Indices[]

Other[]

References[]

  1. ^. Economic Times
  2. ^. UNDP. 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  3. ^. UNDP. 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  4. . UNDP. 4 November 2010. 
  5. (PDF). UNDP. 2013. 
  6. . India Study Channel. 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2017-11-19. 
  7. Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years) is a calculation of the average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older in their lifetime based on education attainment levels of the population converted into years of schooling based on theoretical duration of each level of education attended. Source: ; Lee, J.-W. (2010).. NBER Working Paper No. 15902
  8. (ESYI is a calculation of the number of years a child is expected to attend school, or university, including the years spent on repetition. It is the sum of the age-specific enrollment ratios for primary, secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education and is calculated assuming the prevailing patterns of age-specific enrollment rates were to stay the same throughout the child's life. Expected years of schooling is capped at 18 years. (Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010). Correspondence on education indicators. March. Montreal.)
  9. 20 December 2007 at the.
  10. (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 12 July 2017. 
  11. ^ (PDF).. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  12. (PDF). hdr.undp.org. 2016. 
  13. ^ (PDF). hdr.undp.org. 2015. 
  14. ^ The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.
  15. ^ Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  16. ^ (PDF).. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  17. ^ The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.
  18. ^ The UN the () as a. The HDI report does not include Taiwan as part of the People's Republic of China when calculating China's figures. Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  19. ^ (PDF). hdr.undp.org. 2014. 
  20. ^.. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  21. Hastings, David A. (2009).. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Working Paper WP/09/02
  22. Hastings, David A. (2011).. HumanSecurityIndex.org.  Information Note linked to data
  23. ^ Wolff, Hendrik; Chong, Howard; Auffhammer, Maximilian (2011). "Classification, Detection and Consequences of Data Error: Evidence from the Human Development Index". Economic Journal. 121 (553): 843–870. :. 
  24. . The Economist. January 2011. []
  25. . 6 January 2011. 
  26. Monni, Salvatore; Spaventa, Alessandro (2013). "Beyond Gdp and HDI: Shifting the focus from Paradigms to Politics". Development. 56 (2): 227–231. :. 

External links[]



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